Using AutoRest for PowerShell to generate PowerShell Modules

AutoRest for PowerShell

Recently the Beta of the AutoRest for PowerShell Generator has been made available. At the recent Microsoft MVP Summit in Seattle Garrett Serack gave those that were interested a 1 hr corridor session on getting started with AutoRest for PowerShell.

AutoRest is a tool that generates client libraries for accessing RESTful web services. Microsoft are moving towards using AutoRest to generate SDK’s for the API’s in the standard languages they provide SDK’s for. In addition the AutoRest for PowerShell generator aims to automate the generation of PowerShell Modules for Azure API’s.

In this post I’ll give an intro to getting started with AutoRest to generate PowerShell modules using an AutoRest example and then an Azure Function based API.

AutoRest for PowerShell Prerequisites

AutoRest is designed to be cross-platform. As such its dependencies are NodeJS, PowerShell Core and Dotnet Core.

AutoRest for PowerShell Installation

Installation is done via command line once you have NodeJS installed and configured

npm install -g autorest@beta

if you have previously installed AutoRest you will want to update to the latest version as updates and fixes are coming regularly

autorest --reset

AutoRest Update.PNG

Building your first AutoRest for PowerShell Module

The AutoRest documentation has a couple of examples that are worth using initially to get to know the process and the expected output from AutoRest.

From a PowerShell Core command prompt (type pwsh in a command window) make the following Invoke-WebRequest (IWR) to retrieve the XKCD Swagger/OpenAPI file. I pre-created a sub-directory named XKCD under the directory where I ran the following command.

iwr https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Azure/autorest/master/docs/powershell/samples/xkcd/xkcd.yaml -outfile ./xkcd/xkcd.yaml

Download XKCD Yaml.PNG

We can now start the process to generate the PowerShell module. Change directory to the directory where you put the xkcd.yaml file and run the following command.

autorest --powershell --input-file:./xkcd.yaml

AutoRest Generate Libs.PNG

Following a successful run a generated folder will be created. We can now build the PowerShell Module. We can add the -test flag so that at the end of Generating the Module, Pester will be used to test it. First run PowerShell Core pwsh  then build-module

pwsh 
./generated/build-module.ps1 -test

AutoRest - Build Module.PNG

With the module built and the tests passed we can run it. We need to load the module and look to see the cmdlets that have been built for the API.

.\generated\run-module.ps1 xkcd.psm1
get-command -module xkcd

AutoRest - Load Module.PNG

Using the Get-ComicForToday cmdlet we can query the XKCD API and get the Comic of the Day.

Get-XkcdComicForToday | fl

AutoRest - Comic of the Day.PNG

Taking it one step further we can download the comic of the day and open it, with this PowerShell one-liner.

invoke-webrequest (Get-XkcdComicForToday).img -outfile image.png ; & ./image.png

Download and Display XKCD Comic of the Day.PNG

Let’s Create a Simple API – BOFH Excuse Generator

I created an HTTP Trigger based PowerShell API Function that takes GET requests and returns a BOFH – Bastard Operator from Hell (warning link has audio) style excuse. For those that haven’t been in the industry for 20+ years or aren’t familiar with the Bastard Operator from Hell, it is essentially a set of (semi) fictional transcripts of user interactions from a Service Desk Operator (from Hells’) perspective set in a University environment. Part the schtick is an Excuse of the Day. My API when queried returns a semi plausible Excuse of the Day.

Here is my HTTP Trigger PowerShell Azure Function (v1). A simple random excuse generator.

I configured the function for anonymous, GET operations only and the route to be excuse

Testing the Function from my local machine showed it was working and returning an excuse.

Now it’s time to generate the OpenAPI Spec. Select the Azure Function App => Platform Features => API definition

Select Generate API definition template and the basics of the OpenAPI spec for the new API will be generated. I then updated it with the output application/json and what the API returns as shown in the highlighted sections below. Select Save 

Now we can test it out and we see that we have success.

Taking the OpenAPI Spec (YAML format file) for our BOFH Excuse API we go through the steps to successfully generate the PowerShell Module using AutoRest. Running the freshly baked cmdlet from the BOFH PowerShell Module returns a BOFH Excuse. Awesome.

Summary

Using AutoRest it is possible to generate PowerShell Modules for our API’s. Key to the successful generation is the definition of the OpenAPI Spec for our API. In my example above, obviously if you don’t define what the API call returns then the resulting cmdlet will query the API, but won’t return the result.

Using SailPoint IdentityNow v3 API’s with PowerShell

The SailPoint IdentityNow SaaS product is evolving. I’ve previously posted about integrating with the IdentityNow API’s using PowerShell;

IdentityNow now has v3 API’s which are essentially the v2 and non-Published API’s with the added benefit of being able to obtain an oAuth token from a new oAuth Token endpoint. Unlike the v2 process for enabling API integration, v3 currently requires that SailPoint generate and provide you with the ClientID and Secret. This Compass document (at the very bottom) indicates that this will be the preferred method for API access moving forward.

The process to get an oAuth Token the process is;

  • Generate Credentials using your IdentityNow Admin Username and Password as detailed in my v1 Private API post
    • Lines 1-12
  • Use the credentials from the step above in the oAuth token request
  • Use the ClientID and Secret as Basic AuthN to the Token endpoint
  • Obtain an oAuth Token contained in the resulting $Global:v3Token variable

Authentication Script

Update:

  • Line 2 with your Org name
  • Line 5 with your Admin Login Name
  • Line 6 with your Admin Password
  • Line 15 with your SailPoint supplied ClientID
  • Line 16 with your SailPoint supplied Secret

Your resulting token will then look like this;

SailPoint v3 API oAuth Token.PNG

Using the v3 oAuth Access Token

So far I’ve found that I can use the oAuth Token to leverage the v2 and non-published API’s simply by using the JWT oAuth Token in the Header of the webrequest e.g

@{Authorization = "Bearer $($Global:v3Token.access_token)"}

Depending on which API you are interacting with you may also require Content-Type e.g

@{Authorization = "Bearer $($Global:v3Token.access_token)"; "Content-Type" = "application/json"}

Summary

Talk to your friendly SailPoint Support Rep and get your v3 API ClientID and Secret and discard this previous hack of scraping the Admin Portal for the oAuth Token saving a few hundred lines of code.

Leveraging v1, v2 and non-Published SailPoint IdentityNow API’s with PowerShell

UPDATE: 18 Dec 2018 Please see this new post on 
accessing v3 / non-published SailPoint 
IdentityNow API's using PowerShell.
The details in this post will still work for v1 
& v2 API's.

This post supersedes (see above) my previous posts on leveraging the IdentityNow API’s in relation to API Authentication/Authorization;

Using this Compass document as my guide (which takes a bit of finding) I’ve automated the process of being able to use PowerShell to leverage the non versioned/published API’s. The method I show below is also valid for the documented and versioned API’s.

I show how I generate the necessary credentials required for:

  • IdentityNow Basic Authentication
  • IdentityNow Cookie Authentication
  • IdentityNow JWT oAuth Bearer Authentication

I also show working calls using Basic and JWT oAuth Authentication. The CCSessionID is extracted for use in Cookie Authentication for completeness, but everything can be accomplished using Basic and JWT oAuth Authentication. This document on SailPoint Compass provides more details on each.

Script Overview

Using PowerShell I;

  • authenticate to the IdentityNow Portal
  • elevate via authentication to the Admin section of the IdentityNow Portal
  • obtain the CCSESSIONID Cookie and the CSRF Token
  • provide the ability to add into the Web Session Header IdentityNow Basic or JWT oAuth Authentication credentials

That then allows access to the non-published API’s that are leveraged via the IdentityNow Portal and published API’s.

Obtaining the CSRF Token, JWT Access Token and Session Cookie Programatically with PowerShell

Update the Strong Authentication Methods for IdentityNow Admins

As we need to programatically authenticate to the Portal itself to get the necessary information required for API authorization, we need a mechanism that supports that. The only one that does easily is password. So you will need to enable that.

  • NOTE: chances are you’re using programmatic access to configure/ingest data or configuration as part of service enablement. Once that is done, REMOVE “re-entering password” as a Strong Authentication Method.

In the IdentityNow Portal go to Admin => Identities => Identity Profiles => IdentityNow Admins =>Enable By re-entering their password

Admin Centre Strong Auth Options.PNG

Using a Chrome Browser head to the IdentityNow Login screen for your Tenant. e.g. https://TENANT.identitynow.com. Press F12 for Developer Tools and then enter the Username and Password for an Admin account. Press the Record button (highlighted below, if it isn’t already red) to start recording and then press the Sign In button.

Portal Login Window

When the browser has logged you in, select the Network tab and then right-click on the ‘login’ entry in the trace. Select Copy and then Copy as PowerShell which will copy the webrequest that you just performed to login. Paste this into the script below on Line 25.

WebRequest Login

Next in the browser select Admin and then any of the Admin menu items. e.g. Dashboard => Overview. Select Enter password and check Remember my preference then Continue.

Record the Strong Auth Screen.PNG

The next screen will give you the prompt to supply your password again. Enter the password and then clear the traces from the Developer Tools pane and then make sure Record is enabled, then press Authenticate.

Record Password 2nd Screen.PNG

Select the strongAuthn trace from the Network tab, right-click and select Copy and then Copy as PowerShell. Paste this into the script below on Line 43. Don’t forget to edit it for the CSRF Token variable.  

Strong Auth Capture.PNG

The Script

Update the script below for your environment by:

  • Line 3 with your IdentityNow Organisation name
  • Line 9 with your IdentityNow API Client ID
  • Line 11 with your IdentityNow API Client Secret
  • Line 16 with your Admin login name for the IdentityNow Portal
  • Line 25 with the first PowerShell Webrequest you copied above
  • Line 43 update with the second PowerShell Webrequest you copied above. Make sure to go back and add in the variable for the CSRF Token as shown below. $($orgName) is optional.
    • example $admPortalAuthN = Invoke-WebRequest -Uri $adminStrongAuthURI -Method “POST” -Headers @{“Origin” = “https://$($orgName).identitynow.com”; “Accept-Encoding” = “gzip, deflate, br”; “X-CSRF-Token” = $($csrf); “Accept-Language” = “en-US,en;q=0.9”; “User-Agent” = “Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/69.0.3497.100 Safari/537.36”; “Accept” = “*/*”; “Referer” = “https://$($orgname).identitynow.com/ui/admin”; “X-Requested-With” = “XMLHttpRequest”} -ContentType “application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8” -Body “password=f2dbeb5a897abeeecafc9deee5612345678903456789bdedf7d42” -WebSession $IDN

Output from the Script

The screenshot below shows successfully making API calls to IdentityNow across the v1, v2 and the non versioned API’s after generating the necessary Authentication credentials.

Note that after calling the v1 and non versioned API’s I change the Headers to remove the Bearer Authorization Token and replace it with the Basic Authorization Token so that the v2 API’s can be called.

Examples Output.PNG

Optional: Obtaining the CSRF Token Manually

If you do want to obtain the CSRF Token manually then using a web browser.

  • Login to IdentityNow Portal main Dashboard with an Admin account
    • A direct URI looks like this;
https://TENANT.identitynow.com/login/login?goto=https%3A%2F%2FTENANT.identitynow.com%2Fui%2Fd%2Fdashboard
  • Head to the Admin Dashboard and you will be prompted for Strong Authentication
https://TENANT.identitynow.com/ui/admin#admin:dashboard:overview
    • At this point though you will also be able to retrieve the CSRF Token

Using the Chrome Developer Tools (e.g. pressing F12 in Chrome) select Console, then at the prompt type SLPT.CSRFToken You will then see your CSRF Token for that session.

CSRFToken via Browser.PNG

Summary

With the ability to programatically generate the necessary Authorization tokens for IdentityNow we can interact with the documented API’s along with the API’s that are being leveraged by the IdentityNow Admin Portal itself.

Authoring Identities in SailPoint IdentityNow via the API and PowerShell

Introduction

A key aspect of any Identity Management project is having an Authoritative Source for Identity. Typically this is a Human Resources system. But what about identity types that aren’t in the authoritative source? External Vendors, contingent contractors and identities that are used by End User Computing systems such as Privileged Accounts, Service Accounts, Training Accounts.

Now some Identity Management Solutions allow you to Author identity through their Portals, and provide a nice GUI to create a user/training/service account. SailPoint IdentityNow however doesn’t have that functionality. However it does have an API and I’ll show you in the post how you can use it to Author identity into IdentityNow via the API.

Overview

So, now you’re thinking great, I can author Identity into IdentityNow via the API. But, am I supposed to get managers to interface with an API to kick off a workflow to create identities? Um, no. I don’t think we want to be giving them API access into our Identity Management solution.

The concept is this. An Identity Request WebApp would collect the necessary information for the identities to be authored and facilitate the creation of them in IdentityNow via the API. SailPoint kindly provide a sample project that does just that. It is available on Github here. Through looking at this project and the IdentityNow API I worked out how to author identity via the API using PowerShell. There were a few gotchas I had to work through so I’m providing a working example for you to base a solution around.

Getting Started

There are a couple of things to note.

  • Obviously you’ll need API access
  • You’ll want to create a Source that is of the Flat File type (Generic or Delimited File)
    • We can’t create accounts against Directly Connected Sources
  • There are a few attributes that are mandatory for the creation
    • At a minimum I supply id, name, givenName, familyName, displayName and e-mail
    • At an absolute bare minimum you need the following. Otherwise you will end up with an account in IdentityNow that will show as “Identity Exception”
      • id, name, givenName, familyName, e-mail*

* see note below on e-mail/email attribute format based on Source type

Creating a Flat File Source to be used for Identity Authoring

In the IdentityNow Portal under Admin => Connections => Sources select New.

Create New Source.PNG

I’m using Generic as the Source Type. Give it a name and description. Select Continue

New Generic Source.PNG

Assign an Owner for the Source and check the Accounts checkbox. Select Save.

New Source Properties.PNG

At the end of the URL of the now Saved new Source get and record the SourceID. This will be required so that when we create users via the API, they will be created against this Source.

SourceID.PNG

If we look at the Accounts on this Source we see there are obviously none.

Accounts.PNG

We’d better create some. But first you need to complete the configuration for this Source. Go and create an Identity Profile for this Source, and configure your Identity Mappings as per your requirements. This is the same as you would for any other IdentityNow Source.

Authoring Identities in IdentityNow with PowerShell

The following script is the bare minimum to use PowerShell to create an account in IdentityNow. Change;

  • line 2 for your Client ID
  • line 4 for your Client Secret
  • line 8 for your Tenant Org Name
  • line 12 for your Source ID
  • the body of the request for the account to be created (lines 16-21)

NOTE: By default on the Generic Source the email attribute is ’email’. By default on the Delimited Source the email attribute is ‘e-mail’. If your identities after executing the script and a correlation are showing as ‘Identity Exception’ then it’s probably because of this field being incorrect for the Source type. If in doubt check the Account Schema on the Source.

Execute the script and refresh the Accounts page. You’ll see we now have an account for Rick.

Rick Sanchez.PNG

Expanding Rick’s account we can see the full details.

Rick Full Details.PNG

Testing it out for a Bulk Creation

A few weeks ago I wrote this post about generating user data from public datasets. I’m going to take that and generate 50 accounts. I’ve added additional attributes to the Account Schema (for suburb, state, postcode, street). Here is a script combining the two.

Running the script creates our 50 users in conjunction to the couple I already had present.

Bulk Accounts Created.PNG

Summary

Using the IdentityNow API we can quickly leverage it to author identity into SailPoint IdentityNow. That’s the easy bit sorted. Now to come up with a pretty UI and a UX that passes the End-User usability tests. I’ll leave that with you.